The product of calcination is usually referred to in general as "calcine", regardless of the actual minerals undergoing thermal treatment. Calcination is carried out in furnaces or reactors (sometimes referred to as kilns or calciners) of various designs including shaft furnaces, rotary kilns, multiple hearth furnaces, and fluidized bed reactors.
Calcination of Gypsum Gypsum or Calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSo 4.2H 2 O) is a mineral of calcium that is mined in various parts of the world. It is also formed as a by-product of flue gas desulphurization in some coal-fired electric power plants. There are different kinds of Gypsum and are listed below.
As per the popular definition, calcination is defined as the process of converting ore into an oxide by heating it strongly. The ore is heated below its melting point either in absence of air or in limited supply. This method is commonly used for converting carbonates and hydroxides to their respective oxides.
Controlled thermal treatment of inorganic materials Calcination is a thermal treatment process most commonly applied to inorganic products. In its most conventional meaning, the term “calcination” is widely used in industrial thermal processing terminology to describe the processes of burning the lime or converting the iron ores into oxides.
The authors have developed a process for the direct production of the rare earth elements oxides (REO) through the calcination of a ore that contains carbonate minerals, such as bastnaesite (a known REE bearing carbonatite) and gangues (e.g., calcite, dolomite, siderite, and ankerite).
A system and method for the calcination of minerals. The system comprises a vertically disposed reactor segment configured to impart horizontal forces on particles passing through the reactor segment in a vertical direction; an injector unit for receiving granular feedstock, the injector unit being disposed at a top portion of the reactor segment, whereby granules of the feedstock move through .
The papers in this volume give the reader focused information on the important extractive metallurgy unit operations of drying, roasting, and calcining